Sunday, April 27, 2014

WAF - Typical Detection & Protection Techniques

WAF - Web Application Firewalls is a new breed of information security technology that offers protection to web sites and web applications from malicious attacks. As the name suggests, WAF solution is intended scanning the HTTP and HTTPS traffic alone. The WAF solutions have evolved over the last few years and are capable of preventing attacks that network firewalls and intrusion detection systems can't. The WAF offering typically comes in the form of a packaged appliance, i.e. with a purpose built hardware and a software running on it and is plugged in to the network. Different appliances offer different level of deployment capabilities, like, active / passive modes, support for High Availability,etc.

Different vendors have come up with various techniques to detect and protect web applications of the enterprise and thus the capabilities of the solution differ. However, at a minimum these devices offer the following detection and protection capabilities:

Detection Techniques

Normalization techniques

Web applications of those days were simple and mostly was comprising of the HTML content. Various tools and solutions have emerged to leverage the HTTP protocol for use by various applications to receive and send complex data including encoded binary data of higher volumes and also extend the use of the HTTP methods. Hackers also leverage these techniques to attack a web application. This calls for the WAF device should have the ability to use a technique to transform the input data into a normalized form, so that the same can be inspected for potential malicious content that could be leverage to perform an attack.

Signature Based Detection

This technique involves use of a string or regular expression based match against the incoming traffic for a specific signature and thus detecting a potential attack. For this purpose, the need to maintain a database of such attack signature is essential. Most popular WAF solution vendors maintain their own databases, whereas others subscribe to such databases.These databases need frequent updates to take into account the signatures used in recent attacks elsewhere.

Rule Based Detection 

Rule based Detection technique is similar to Signature Based Detection, but it allows use of a more complex logic. For instance, even if a signature match is detected, it can be further subjected to certain other conditions, like if the data is from a trusted source, the traffic may still be allowed to pass through with or without appropriate alerts and triggers for manual inspection. While the WAF solution is shipped with the standard rules, the same would be configurable to meet the security needs of the customer. The standard rules may also be part of the signature / rule database as may be maintained or subscribed to by the vendor

APIs for Extensibility

Despite the standard signature and rule based detection techniques, the actual deployment scenario at the customer site may require customization of the techniques used in detection. WAF solutions vendors usually support this need by offering extensible APIs, plug-ins, or scripting. These extensiblity options if not appropriately secured, can be exploited by hackers too.

Protection Techniques

Brute Force Attacks Mitigation

These attacks use automated scripts that attempt to login to the web application with common user name and passwords. The attacks usually originate from a large number of sources consisting of both legitimate web servers and private home computers. Once a username and password is successfully guessed, the hackers or their scripts / tools use the gained admin credentials for the next stage of attacks. Given that the user name passwords follow stricter rules and thus these attack is most likely to fail in guessing the valid credentials, but these attacks generate unduly high traffic, which will result in resource drain and in turn affect the availability of the web application.

Protection from Cookie Poisoning

Cookie Poisoning attacks involve the modification of the contents of a cookie (personal information stored in a Web user's computer) in order to bypass security mechanisms. Using cookie poisoning attacks, attackers can gain unauthorized information about another user and steal their identity. Cookie poisoning is in fact a Parameter Tampering attack, where the parameters are stored in a cookie. In many cases cookie poisoning is more useful than other Parameter Tampering attacks because programmers store sensitive information in the allegedly invisible cookie. Most WAF solutions offer protection from Cookie poisoning by facilitating the signing and / or encryption of cookies, virtualizing the cookies or a custom protection mechanism as the specific web application may demand.

Session Attacks Mitigation

Session store is an important component of a web application and this store is used to share some of the common parameters pertaining to the user and the specific session across various actions within the application. Thus the session data is a key component that is used to secure the web applications. The hackers on the other hand try various techniques to hijack the session or tamper the session parameters. While tampering the parameter values is similar to Cookie Poisoning, Session Hijacking is stealing the session identifier and simulating requests from different sources with the stolen session identity. WAF solutions provide protection to session hijacking by signing and / or encrypting the session data and also linking the session identifier with the originating client.

Injection Attack Protection

An SQL injection attack is insertion of a SQL query via the input data from the client to the application. A successful SQL injection attack can read sensitive data from the database, modify database data, or shutdown the server. Similarly operating system and platform commands can often be used to give attackers access to data and escalate privileges on back-end servers Remote File Inclusion attacks allow malicious users to run their own PHP code on a vulnerable website to access anything that the PHP program could: databases, password files, etc. Most WAF solutions using the normalization technique and the signature and rule database would be able to deny requests carrying such data, command or instruction that could lead to any of the injection attacks.

DDoS Protection

Distributed Denial of Attack is a common technique used by hackers to impair the availability of a website or application by directing unusually huge traffic against the site or application. This will result in all the computing resources used up and eventually leading to the site not being available at all. The WAF solutions making use of the normalization techniques and the signature and rule databases would be able to block such requests. Some common techniques used by the WAF solutions are to have a check on the content length and by evaluating the number of requests or sessions from the same originating client within a given time period.

Obviously, what is listed above are most common detection and protection techniques that any WAF solution would offer. But vendors are constantly improving these techniques and thus adding more detection and protection features. This has to be a constant endeavor as the hackers on the other hand are also coming up with newer techniques to exploit various vulnerabilities.

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