I recently happened to read a Technical Note published in October 2006 by Software Engineering Institute titled as ‘System-of-Systems Governance: New Patterns of Thought’. The technical note was primarily aimed at organizations like Department of Defence, where in multiple organizations and systems need to collaborate to form part of DoD as the bigger enterprise. The Note discusses about some of the key areas where the traditional Governance would need a review and revision to handle the very nature of the System-of-Systems.
CIOs are in favour of embracing cloud and as such would have contracted for multiple software systems (SaaS) for different needs, for instance Salesforce for its CRM needs, ServiceNow for its IT Service Management, Windows Azure for custom application development, NetSuite for its ERP needs and so on. Similarly the IT organization would have contracted with different cloud service providers for its Infrastructure (IaaS), Storage and Platform (PaaS) needs. The XaaS list is growing as we are now seeing offerings from vendors for Database as a Service, Security as a Service, Identity as a Service, etc. With all this multiple contracted system components, the IT organization certainly has challenges in implementing governance practices, as there are diverse systems components forming part of the larger system.
In today’s world, with increasing cloud adoption and outsourcing activities, we could see business organizations are in almost in the same state as it is described of DoD, i.e. System-of-Systems and the key governance challenges very much hold good to be addressed. The following are the five amongst the six areas that need to be looked into to realign the governance practice within an enterprise:
Collaboration and Authority
With systems and components owned by various organizations being in use, even if owners of constituent systems are unusually committed to the system of systems, a single authority is likely to be ineffective. And if authority is essential to the enforcement of IT policy, then without sufficient or inadequate authority independent vendor organizations can always be expected to have reluctance in adopting shared policies. Collaboration amongst the constituent system owners is required at least in problem solving, participating in decision making process, coming up with provisional solutions to meet an emergency need. While the cloud computing is still maturing, there is a need for standards to emerge which should facilitate the necessary collaboration both technically and in terms of policy federation.
Motivation and Accountability
There should be motivation for anyone to adhere to or adapt to a shared policy. Enforcing such shared standards or policies across independent vendors would not work as effectively. The Technical Note refers to Zadek’s five stages of learning that organizations go through to achieve the benefit of voluntary collaboration. These are:
Clic on the image to view a better image
The table above not only shows what motivates organizations at different stages but also reveals what they may need to learn. For example, a defensive organization that claims common system-of-systems practices are irrelevant may need to be educated about threats to its reputation due to its lack of voluntary compliance. At all stages, we need policies to give individuals and organizations the incentive to do the right thing.
A simple example to highlight how this area is significant could be the security implementation within the component systems. Each component and system vendor may have different security models implemented within the individual systems and that complicates the governance of the overall organization challenging. This calls for the need for a dynamic governance model, which can map and interact between different models of the individual components. While security is just one example there are other areas where the components are designed and modelled differently. While framing the Governance policies to suit all such systems certainly is not the good approach, the governance framework should provide for variables based on type of systems or type of service or a similar category.
Expectation of Evolution
This can be easily related to change and release management of independent vendor systems and the change of the common infrastructure of the enterprise itself. If governance cannot eliminate the independent evolution of components within the system of systems, it should aim to reduce the harmful effects of uncontrolled evolution by the component systems. Thus, policies must be created and enforced to provide rules and guidance for components as they change.
At a minimum, governance for evolution should include rules and guidelines for
- informing other components systems (when known) 12 of the changes in the interfaces to and functionality of one system
- coordinating schedules with other component systems so that those that have to change can do so together (when backward compatibility of interfaces cannot be maintained)
- maintaining multiple versions of the system when schedules cannot be coordinated
- developing each system to insulate it from changes in other component systems
- minimizing the perturbations to interfaces when changing a system
Highly Fluid Processes
Agility is the order of the day within every function of the enterprise. Being agile and responding to changes quickly gives the competitive edge to the enterprises and that is equally applicable for the Governance Framework as well.
Planning for rapid changes in system-of-systems governance is needed. For example, governance strategies may provide a mechanism for adapting to rapid policy change, such as a way to relax security policies to achieve some urgent goal and then tighten them up again. Governance policies should be framed in such a way that those around the systems or components which is likely to see problems or changes too quickly should have flexible policies and whereas as we move away from such systems, it should be relatively stable. For example, a neighbourhood of closely related systems might be the first to notice a problem with a current component or process and will need to respond quickly. At the extreme, where neighbourhoods of related systems are themselves fluid, some details of system-of-systems governance policies might be negotiated.
As with the technical note, I have not attempted to suggest solution for the governance challenges listed above. Organizations like ISACA have been researching on Governance issues and its widely adopted COBIT framework would have solutions for these problems, which we will explore in my future blog posts.
SEI's Technical Note - System-of-Systems Governance