Sunday, April 13, 2014

IT Governance For Small Businesses - Constraints

There is a perception that IT Governance best suits for large organizations and small organizations tend to ignore it considering the efforts and resources that is required in practicing the IT Governance within. But IT Governance is equally important for smaller organizations as well, so that the IT function however small it is deliver maximum value for the business and at the same time to keep the risk exposure to the minimum. Existing frameworks like COBIT are too extensive for small businesses to use in implementing IT governance. These frameworks however are too complex and costly to implement and small businesses may consider it a bigger battle to implement and manage such framework.


ISACA however recommends to take an evolutive approach and thus take smaller steps first and let it evolve. Small businesses should convert the high-level concept of governance into practical and easy to implement best practices. The resource pools available with the small businesses will be a lot smaller and even outsourcing might prove expensive, considering the business volume and thus establishing an RoI on implementing IT Governance could be a bigger challenge.


It is not just the resources and cost, there are certain other characteristics of small businesses, which come in way of implementing an IT Governance. Here are some such characteristics, which an IT Governance framework designed for a small business should take into consideration.


Smaller or no Board of Directors

Many small businesses are closely held and thus could be a family business or private limited company with a small number of Directors on the Board. Having an Independent Director or a Director with IT background on the board is a big ask. This will leave the concentration of IT decision making with few or even single individual, which could be the CEO or the owner himself. IT savvy business owners or CEOs tend to use or leverage IT more for their business and thus have some degree of adoption of standards, practices and frameworks. In such cases, the choice of technology, standards, practices, etc are most likely limited to the knowledge levels of the owner or CEO and they don't take a leap forward into unfamiliar areas, which will call for more resources in evaluating and establishing the RoI for the same.

Organization Structure

One of the first step in implementing the IT Governance in an organization is to get an IT Strategy Committee and an IT Steering Committee with representation from different functions and from the Board. Small businesses do not have the extensive management structures to have such committee(s). The organization structure with small business are not as extensive as that of large organizations and as such enforcing separation of duties may not be feasible at all. For instance, the Finance Manager of a small business will also perform the function of IT procurement with minimal support from IT Administrators. Similarly, having a separate CIO could be a bigger ask for a small businesses as the costs for having such resources does not warrant the return.

Smaller IT departments

Having a fully functional IT department is a big investment for a small business. Thanks to the cloud trend and software as a service, this is a challenge even the IT departments in large organizations are facing. Cloud based services like Google Apps for business and Microsoft's Office 365, coupled with various specific purpose software as a service, it is becoming a lot easier for the businesses to get its IT up and running with least help from IT experts. This characteristic of a small business leads to a situation where a non-IT staff might have to take up the IT Governance initiative, which obviously has a challenge within as such staff might not comprehend the nuances of the Governance practices and jargon.

Lack of complementing frameworks

IT Governance  framework generally relies on various other practices or frameworks practiced in an organization. For instance ITIL, Enterprise Risk Management, ISO, CMMI, etc are some such standards or frameworks, the existence of which makes adoption of an IT Governance framework a bit seamless. In a small business existence of such standards is highly unlikely. Small businesses need an IT governance framework that is simpler, self containing and easier to implement, and only contain controls that are not dependent on a control practice of a different standard or practice.

Information security

While small business are not the target of hackers or attackers, the risk of information security always remained. For obvious reasons that arise out of the characteristics listed here, small businesses could not see the return on investment in information security. For that matter, small business do not have a formal risk management practice. They, typically, do not possess some of the basic elements of security management like information security policies, backup and disaster recovery, security awareness and up-to-date anti-virus protection. An IT governance framework aimed at small businesses will have to include a strong emphasis on information security and address the common security risks affecting small businesses.

Resources & Tools

Use of sophisticated software applications make implementation and practicing IT Governance easier, but it calls for heavy investment, which is beyond the reach for small businesses. For instance, Performance Evaluation of various IT resources call for collection of data and come up with various metrics that can be used to benchmark and as well measure the performance of IT resources and functions. This is made easier by using automated tools and depending on manual methods could prove cumbersome and data inaccuracy.
Because of the lack of financial and technical resources, small businesses cannot make use of such automated tools or software systems for the purpose.


Though the above list is not exhaustive, what are listed above are the ones that can be considered as key constraints for an IT Governance framework for the small business to address. There is no one solution fits all even for large organizations. The IT Governance framework has to be designed, created and managed as relevant for each organization. That includes even a small business. While one may pick and choose controls from various frameworks and tailor them to suit the specific small or medium business. The framework should however provide for evolution, so that the same can improve based on feedback from the practice.

Saturday, April 5, 2014

IT Procurement - The Pricing Woes

Most IT products (both hardware and software) targeted for home or individual end customers usually carry a standard rate card. Some large resellers, considering their sales volume may offer a discounted price and that may be about 5 to 10 percent. While this seem to be a fair game, on the enterprise products side, things are totally different. The buyer, reseller (be it integrator or just a distributor) and the principal vendors play a game of negotiation. The end result of this game mostly is that one or more players lose. This is in contrast to the win-win theory where it is expected that all the players win.

The principals offering such enterprise products don't seem to have a standard pricing policy. Instead, they price the product or service for the specific enterprise customer based on the deal volume, the strategic importance of the deal and the indirect values that can be derived out of a specific deal. The indirect benefits could range from an increased reach to the associates of the customer, a consent to publish case study which might improve the market ranking of the product or increased revenue figures which again is used to determine the market share of the product or service.

The discounts the enterprise customers get range from 40 to even 90 percent. Large enterprises manage to negotiate and get substantial discounts on such products and services. Neither the principals nor the resellers can expect any margin out of such deals, but look for indirect benefits. This could potentially lead to a situation, where the principals don't see the intended indirect benefits being realized, they tend to take a 'no-frills' approach and thus not actively contributing towards the business goals of the customer.

This kind of pricing approach also result in the smaller businesses end up compensating the benefits that the larger enterprises get. That is, the discounts that the large enterprises get is out of the gains that the principals and resellers make out of deals with smaller business entities. This is in a way like taxing the poor for the benefit of the rich and could very well be termed as corporate corruption.

Knowing this, customers try their best to engage into a hard negotiation and get the maximum discount. When it is good to get the price advantage, are they aware of the hidden perils that could get in their way? Here are some such things that could happen:


  • The principals are likely to cut corners to ensure that they maximise their gain out of the deal or minimize the loss out of the deal. This could mean anything like trimming down the features which were not explicitly demanded by the customer and charge the customer when such features are required by the customer.
  • Vendors take the tendency to tone down post sale service levels. This could be the reason for a contrasting experience or feedback from different customers for the same product or service.
  • Principals and / or resellers take the no-frills approach. That is customer cannot expect a 'Customer Delight' kind of offering. The principals and vendors would stick to deliver what has been committed and not a bit more.
  • Unduly longer time and efforts is lost in the process of negotiation, which can have an impact on the time to market advantages for the customer.


While the above could impact the value delivery, these should not come in way in the negotiation process and thus ending up agreeing for an unreasonably higher cost.  This is where a win-win approach is recommended. A win-win outcome is one that gets all parties more than what no agreement would have guaranteed them. Win-win agreements do no promise all sides equal or similar gains. They only promise that all sides get is an outcome that is better than their most realistic estimate of what they would have ended up with had they walked away with no agreement.


Saturday, March 22, 2014

Business Impact Analysis for Effective BCM

A business continuity plan facilitates in improving the availability of organization's critical services. In the process, the BCP plan identifies and mandates such critical processes and also periodically assesses the quantitative and qualitative impact to the organization in the event of any disruption to such services. While Business Continuity Plan is proactive in managing the risk of business disruption, Business Resumption Plan and Disaster Recovery Plan are reactive in restoring the business to its working state as it deals with recovering or resuming the business services and assets following a disruption. BCP planning is a direct input to the business's D/R action plans.

Business Continuity Management and disaster recovery are natural components of Enterprise Risk Management. All the resources and plans that make up a business continuity plan are developed to address business interruption risk in an organization and should be part of a comprehensive mitigation plan for all the enterprise risks. Many organizations are beginning to recognize the opportunity they have from embedding or incorporating BCM into an overall program to identify, evaluate and mitigate risk. By viewing BCM as a risk management function and embedding it into the enterprise level ERM program, which has been aligned with the strategic imperatives of the company, boardroom expectations are met and alignment achieved.


The typical goals of BCM are:

  • To identify critical business processes and assign criticality. Factors influencing the determination of criticality include inter-dependencies among business processes and the MAD for each unique business process.
  • To estimate the maximum downtime the bank can tolerate while still maintaining viability. Bank management must determine the longest period of time a business process can be disrupted before recovery becomes impossible or moot.
  • To evaluate resource requirements such as facilities, personnel, equipment, software, data files, vital records, and vendor and service provider relationships

Business Impact Analysis

The first step in developing a strong, organization-wide business continuity plan is conducting a Business Impact Analysis. The result of BIA is a business impact analysis report, which describes the potential risks specific to the organization. The challenge lies in assessing the financial and other business risks associated with a service disruption. A BIA report quantifies the importance of business components and suggests appropriate plan and fund allocation for measures to protect them.

As with any plan, the Business Continuity Planning should also evolve on a continuous basis, as the business contexts keep changing in line with the growth and changing directions. Business Impact Analysis being an important phase of the BCM life-cycle,  the same should be revisited and refreshed in line with the BCM life cycle. As a process, the BIA shall be performed with respect to each critical activity or even resources forming part of the enterprise business processes. Though BIA is applied to critical activities, it is recommended to perform BIA on all activities as it is BIA that establishes the criticality of such activity, process or resource.

Performing BIA

The following are the key steps in performing the Business Impact Analysis:

  • Preparation and Set-up - It is important to identify the tools or templates required to perform BIA. For instance, a reference table to determine the business impact is essential to provide consistent definitions to different types of impacts and severity levels. If a structured risk assessment has already been carried out, the definitions and severity levels should already have been captured, and should be used for the BIA as well. 
  • Identification - This first step determines the activities to be performed, resources to be used to deliver the goods and services of the business organization. The source for gathering this information could be right from the mission & objectives of the enterprise to the defined business processes. Given that the BIA is performed on the identified activities and resources, this step however can be considered as a pre-requisite for BIA, rather than a step within BIA.
  • Identify potential disruptions - With respect to each identified activity or resource, identify the possible events or scenarios that could impact its desired outcome and thereby impacting the business process. This activity is usually best done using techniques like brain storming involving the relevant business users. As part of this step the correlation of the severity of the impact with the duration of disruption is also established.
  • Identify tangible losses - Disruption in certain activities or non availability of certain resources would directly result in monetary losses. If the given activity or resource or it in combination with other resources or activities could potentially cause revenue loss, the same should be identified and established as to the magnitude of such loss as well.
  • Quantify intangible losses - Certain activities, when disrupted may not directly result into monetary losses, but may result in intangible loss to the organization. For instance, non availability of customer care executives to respond to customer queries, could result in erosion of brand value. Such impacts should be quantified using appropriate techniques so that the same can be considered in determining the priority.
  • Recovery cost - As part of the impact analysis it would make sense to capture details of time and efforts it takes to resume or recover from the disruption. The magnitude of the recovery cost would also contribute to the determination of the prioritization or ranking.
  • Identify dependencies - Some times, the potential disruption or its impact depends on certain other activities or resources be it internal or external. This details will be useful in drawing up the business resumption plan and the disaster recovery plan. 
  • Ranking - Once all relevant information has been collected and assembled, rankings for the critical business services or resources can be produced. Ranking is based on the potential loss of revenue, time of recovery and severity of impact a disruption would cause. Minimum service levels and maximum allowable downtime are also established.
  • Prioritize critical services or products - Once the critical services or products are identified, they must be prioritized based on minimum acceptable delivery levels and the maximum period of time the service can be down before severe damage to the organization results. To determine the ranking of critical services, information is required to determine impact of a disruption to service delivery, loss of revenue, additional expenses and intangible losses.

The quality of the BIA is reflected in the reports that are produced after completing the above mentioned steps. Given that BIA is a critical phase of BCM, it is important that this activity is performed with as much care and attention to the details. Using the right set of tools, techniques, templates and questionaire is recommended for best results.